The syntax for IF function is:
=IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
For example, let's say we have a spreadsheet of a few students and we need to find out quickly who passed the test. We have their Roll Nos. and Marks in columns B & C respectively. In the 'Status' column (Column D), we can create a simple IF function that will tell us whether or not the student passed. (Let's assume 50 or higher is the passing score).
In cell D4, we would enter =IF(C4>49,"PASS","FAIL"). This tells Excel to look in cell C4 (Marks) and test to see if its greater than 49. If it is, excel enters the word "PASS" in cell D4. If the marks obtained are 49 or lower, the word "FAIL" is entered instead.
Simply drag down the cell with the formula, till the last student and get the Pass / Fail Status of each.